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Follow-up of professional fishermen activities within Natura 2000 sites of Penmarc'h - Glénan - Trévignon. Survey protocol, results and recommendations.

Autor : Sophie Lecerf, Comité Départemental des Pêches Maritimes et des Elevages Marins du Finistère
Date : 01/06/2012
País : France
Tipo : Guía y recomendaciones
Technical themes : Pesca profesional, Gestión de las AMP
Available languages : French

South Finistère (in Brittany) is concerned by the implementation of three marine Natura 2000 sites on a vast maritime space of nearly 1000 km², which extends from the point of Penmarc'h to the point of Trévignon, including the Glénan Archipelago. These sites were notified to the European Union in 2008 in conformance with the Habitats (1992) and Birds (1979) directives. Their management plans are currently being elaborated.
This territory is the historical heartland of very important and diversified small-scale coastal fisheries. This is one of the reasons why, the Regional Fishermen Committee of Brittany (CRPMEM Bretagne) decided to carry on the Roches de Penmarc'h SCI and SPA, in partnership with the Departmental Fishermen Committee of Finistère (CDPMEM Finistère).

In 2011, the CDPMEM of Finistère made a commitment to the elaboration and the test of a methodology to characterize and follow-up professional fishing activities within these three Natura 2000 sites, within the framework of MAIA project.
The selected methodology arises from human sciences and is based on fishermen interviews.

The first stage of this field study, consisted in listing all the vessels possessing a "right to fish" on the study area, thanks to a work on fishing authorizations listings gathered for that purpose in a database, and to the consultation of some key persons: 285 fishing boats, practicing 10 main types of "métiers" (combination of gear, target species and fishing areas), have been identified on the study area. The majority of these boats practices several "métiers" and is less than 12 meters.
A cartographic database was also prepared under Geographic Information System for the interviews: it contains navigation maps and seabed maps from the French SHOM, as well as a map with the fishing areas names elaborated with the fishermen. Indeed, a part of the interviews consisted in drawing with the professionals their fishing zones, directly under GIS or by using their navigation software (Maxsea).
At the same time, a work of analysis and synthesis of the european, national, regional and local regulations in connection with the resource and the environmental management was also led for every "métier".
Then, the questionnaire was elaborated to collect qualitative and quantitative data, allowing to describe and to characterize each "métier" in time and space. The questions about the practices and the gears technical characteristics were defined by basing itself on the potential gears pressures on habitats and species described in the scientific literature.

The protocol of survey was implemented with a fishermen representative sample. In spite of certain fears and justifiable questionings, fishermen fully participated to the project. 57 interviews were realized: the data collected were synthesized in a sheet for each "métier" and then presented and validated in meetings with fishermen.

The protocol of survey allowed collecting accurate qualitative and quantitative data on the spatio-temporal distribution of fishing activities, as well as on practices and gears characteristics. Finally, the protocol of survey supplied to the MPA manager the main elements necessary for the identification of pressures exercised by fishing gears on habitats and species. The next stage will consist in crossing these data with the SIC ecological data, to study and check if the pressures are real or not.
This participative approach also presents the advantage to involve fishermen throughout the project, in order to lead to the co-construction of a shared diagnosis and a mutual appropriation of the stakes, as well as by the MPA manager and the professional fishermen.

The objective of this feedback from the field is to help MPA managers to set up a partnership with professional fishermen organizations to characterize and follow the professional fishing activities within the MPA.

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